On today’s episode, we talk about the consumer psychology principles that inform the process of building pages that convert. This one might not be for everyone, and it isn’t a step-by-step quick fix guide. Rather, these are the principles we’ve learned from 15 years of building websites and measuring their effectiveness.
What’s In This Episode?
- Clarity / Simplicity of Design (2:55)
- Colour Psychology (10:30)
- Scarcity (15:55)
- Reciprocity & Creating Indebtedness (19:50)
- Cognitive Dissonance (25:30)
- Empathy (27:07)
Josh: Today we are talking about your website pages. What goes into creating a page that actually converts and actually works for you? We’re not just looking at what is on that page, but we are talking on why, and what’s the consumer intent, and what’s the psychological principles behind creating a great page.
Welcome to Creative Juices the show where we help you feel personally confident about your online presence.
I’m your host Josh and today I’m joined by Julz.
Julz: Hey Josh! I’m pumped for this one mate! This one’s a bit different!
Josh: A little bit different and it’s exciting! So what we’re looking at, I mean like what we do every single day is we create websites, we create pages, and the whole concept behind it is how do we create websites that actually work for you and not against you.
Julz: Yeah. I think this has taking a little bit of a time to figure out to be honest. It’s been a real process for us!
Julz: And it’s never ending really!
Josh: Yeah! And one thing we find is that when people are thinking about that, they’re going “Well what colour should my call-to-action be? Where should it be? Should I use a slider? Should I use images?” And there’s all of these things that people want to know, what goes into a page that works, but there’s a lot more like that is behind all of that.
Julz: Yeah, and there’s also like a myriad, like a massive amount of info out there I guess and suggestions by other people and it can be overwhelming, I think.
Josh: And so through experience and through lots of research, we’ve uncovered like quite a few kind of things that have become instinctive for us. But it’s all got to do with like the psychological elements of a consumer and of customers, and we design pages in a way that… that we ask the questions, what kind of page would actually convert a customer? And without even knowing it we kind of delve into the psychology of a consumer.
Josh: And so, today we’re going to be talking about pages that actually convert, but not what’s on that page, but what are the principles that can guide that.
Julz: Yeah. It’s kind of like the behind the scenes peak, more about, or less about necessarily hardcore, practical, do this and place this button here, but probably more about like… yeah, the psychological kind of drivers for people that… yeah lie beneath the surface if you want.
Josh: Yeah, like why would they click that button?
Julz: Yeah, yeah.
Josh: So we’re going to go through quite a few and this is not for everyone, and it’s very in-depth, and like I said, a lot of these have become instinctual for us. But let’s dive straight into it!
So the first principle, this, the first psychological principle we’re going to talk about when building a page is clarity and simplicity of design.
Julz: Yeah. For sure!
Josh: And this is something that guides a lot of our design as well.
Julz: It does! I mean and I think that it can surprise some people, and even some clients actually, when they get their first paint or first draft of their website. They’re like “Wow! It’s um… there’s a lot of white space” or there’s a lot of like uh “it’s a lot cleaner than I was anticipating”. And oftentimes it’s coming off the back of a previous website that may be very overdone, or very busy, or very bold, and so it can be distracting actually.
Josh: Yeah. Absolutely! And a lot of the reason behind looking at your pages is, you want to ask the questions can the users, number one navigate around the site easily, and is it clear what we want them to do? And so, if you’re having… if you’re building pages that are just overly designed, with way too many… way too many images, everyone loves the hero image design…
Josh: …but you have to understand depending on what image you use will affect the complexity of the visual side of the website. Like if you’ve got a tree as a background, it’s like oh nice tree, but that tree has hundreds of leaves, and hundreds of textures to it that take away from the clarity of the website.
Julz: Exactly! Yeah, yeah.
Josh: And so there are some questions that we ask ourselves when it comes to user experience that drive this.
Julz: Yeah. Some of those would be do I know where I am, you know, on the website? Can I find my way back? Can I easily find out what I’m looking for? Can I self-select? These sorts of things.
Josh: Yeah. It’s like can I like… and some things that will help… are like breadcrumbs.
Julz: Yeah, yeah! So if you’re on a page for instance, we use this on our services pages, more so recently, so when a user lands on that service page they can go back to all services if they wish just from a simple click of a button.
Julz: It’s kind of giving them that option point. As soon as they land, if they land on that page by mistake they might want to go back quickly you know, just giving them that extra little option.
Josh: And this is why when we design pages, we hardly ever go more than two levels deep.
Josh: It’s why we always have the header menu always present at the top of the page. That’s why we use breadcrumbs, it’s why we use anchor links within those pages so that people can actually select and make it easy to select. It’s why we have a search bar. There’s so many things!
Julz: There are so many things! And yeah, like going that… going two deep or you know, we call it 3 deep maximum.
Julz: If you go any further than that, or if you have a website that is like that deep, then I would probably recommend re-looking at your site structure. In a way, if it’s too complex or too over complicated then there’s a pretty high chance that people aren’t engaging that deep.
Josh: Yeah. And then there’s a balance where it’s like if you don’t have that kind of organizational system and you’ve just left everything top level. It’s like putting a bunch of paper on your desk and trying to find everything rather than having a filing cabinet.
Julz: Let alone Google trying to figure out what the priority is!
Josh: Yeah! And so that’s number one. That’s one of the big things about clarity and simplicity of design. It’s like what can I navigate around easy? But the other thing is also about next steps.
Julz: Yeah, for sure! So we’ve got a little bit of a rule here. It’s called the five second usability test. And so ask yourself, when you land on a web page next or even on your own website, in five seconds can you tell me what the page wants me to do? Like it should be that simple!
Julz: So if you can’t figure out what needs to happen on that page within about five seconds, you’ve gotta be questioning your strategy on that.
Josh: Absolutely! And this is why I hate sliders at the top of pages, because you land on the page and then you need to wait a few seconds until it slides to the next thing with a different call-to-action. Or you land on a page that has like a call-to-action at the top and then down the side it has blogs, and then in the middle it has like an event registration, and it’s like are you an event company or a service industry? Like what are you trying to do here?
Julz: What’s going on here? Yeah, yeah!
Jsoh: So ask yourself within five seconds, can you work out what the website is telling you to do?
Julz: Yeah, but I saw also, I saw one the other day it was a… actually I think it might have been another design company and I… you know this is the over designing, and kind of… they had this when you can oversimplify things. And I landed on their home page and it was a full screen banner image. And it had something like, you know, attract, you know, multiply… these very vague kind of three words that were like oh that sounds sexy to them in house.
Julz: And the call to action was “call us now” or something like that. And I was like I have absolutely no idea what your service is about, who you are. Like what does that tag line even mean? And why? Why would I want to call you?
Josh: Attract?? Is this a dating service?
Julz: I know, right! And so it’s just coming at it from the totally wrong angle!
Josh: Yeah, absolutely!
So Google did a study in conjunction with the University of Basil. And the study was on the role of visual complexity on websites and how it influences a person’s first impression. And we’ve shared this before because it’s a big one. So some of the core findings was this, that the first impressions on a website occur within 50 milliseconds or less which is absolutely insane! I don’t know how that’s possible.
Julz: That’s 0.05 seconds or less!
Josh: Crazy!! The next one was websites with low visual complexity were perceived as highly appealing. So are you saying that more white space is actually more appealing?
Julz: I know, right?
Josh: Well there’s a balance.
Julz: Yeah. There is
Josh: And then the last one, and this is a very important one. Users love simple and familiar designs. Stay away from those buzz words like Julz was just mentioning. Stay away from over complicating for the sake of making it look beautiful. First impressions are usually design related not usability related, so make it, design it in a way that looks nice, but then, after they stay, after those first impressions, you need to make sure it’s very easy to be used.
Julz: Yeah and I might add on to that, that Google’s starting to take this stuff super seriously. So we’ve had a little heads up that coming in 2021, Google are going to be changing their algorithm. So for you guys out there listening to this I hope that you’re going to be on the ball and your website is going to be up to scratch because Google is implementing a thing called ‘Web Vitals’, which is taking this and even more complex stuff into account moving forward. So those websites that do not think this way are going to lose out.
Josh: Yeah. They’re not going to rank as high.
Josh: So number one was clarity and simplicity of design. That’s a principle that should guide your page design. The next one is colour psychology.
Julz: Hmmm… psychology.
Josh: Julz is all into this kind of psychological stuff.
Julz: Yes, I do enjoy it!
Josh: So some of the things that I found while studying this was that studies show that the majority of women don’t like grey, orange and brown. They prefer blue, purple and greens. And men don’t like purple orange and browns, but men like blue, greens and blacks which is crazy!
Josh: This is a massive study and so if you’re thinking about… this goes deeper than just websites! It does go into your branding as well.
Julz: For sure! I mean, we had a client recently that we did some mock-ups for a logo and she came back and said “Oh the orange. I’ve had a bad experience with orange. Can you change out the orange?” And we were like “Yes, we can change out the orange”, but it was insightful to see that. So that rings true here. Women don’t like grey, orange and brown.
Josh: And it’s crazy because each different colour kind of elicits like these different responses. So orange is usually like urgency, but it’s also more like, more like a budget option.
Julz: Mmm, mmm.
Josh: That’s what most people perceive it as.
Julz: Yeah and on that case, and that point that I… with that client I was just talking about, it turns out that her target market or her audience are primarily men, who actually don’t like purple, orange and brown. So we had to strike that balance between like “Okay, client doesn’t like orange, but she’s targeting men and so who lean more towards like the bluey, greeny, blackie hues”.
Julz: And so we found a… but she didn’t want to lose her vibrancy in her branding either. So we had to really strike out that balance and yeah, tried to lean away from the purples. But we ended up going with a gradient so it was a spectrum of colour, just staying away from orange because that was the common denominator in both that they didn’t like.
Josh: There’s a gradient that’s made up of three colours.
Josh: And so, some other studies talk about, like they painted a room a different colour and measured people’s responses to it. If the room was red, it raised blood pressure, it increased to the speed of respiration and a quickened heart rate, while in another room that they painted blue it reduced blood pressure, it slowed down respiration and reduces heart rate.
And so where this comes into play online is, in particular, mostly call-to-actions, that your call-to-actions, if you make those call-to-actions like this colour that pops out, there’s more of a chance that people actually click it. So for example, Hubspot did this a / b test between a yellow button and a red button. Yellow they found had drastically less clicks than the red buttons, because yellow is perceived as like this warning. It’s like “oh don’t click here” but red raises blood pressure, increases the speed of respiration. It’s like “oh I need to get on this right now!” It’s like urgency!
Josh: So how do you use call-to-actions in your approach?
Julz: Well generally speaking, everything, I come back to the branding. Like obviously we want everything to be brand consistent.
Julz: In the very odd circumstance, where their branding has been fairly dull or those kind of… the heavier blues or the heavier greens and the heavier blacks, and there’s nothing else outside of that, that kind of call-to-action button isn’t really going to pop. So for instance I might go back to the client and just say ”Hey can we find like an accent colour that we could use to make your call-to-action just stand out a little bit more?” But in in general I would try to aim for the most vibrant colour that’s not that kind of warning sort of style of button, but also, yeah, so finding something that will stand out. But as brand, onpoint brand…
Josh: And it plays into like our previous point about clarity and simplicity of design. If most of your website is clear and simple, and then there’s this one call-to-action button that is just vibrant colour, that’s obviously where the eyes going to go, and that’s where you’re leading people!
Julz: Yeah! And even on call-to-action buttons, I mean I know that some websites have multiple call-to-actions and so one thing that I try to do is if for instance it’s “book online” is their primary call-to-action, I’ll keep that “book online” button the same colour across the entire site, just so psychologically the user who lands on any page within that site does the identification between that coloured button, I know is the “book online” button. It’s nothing else. So, if there was like a secondary call-to-action like “contact us” or anything like that, “read our blog”, something like that, then I would make that button a different colour.
Josh: Yeah. Absolutely!
Julz: And not as vibrant. It won’t be as vibrant.
Josh: Well, if the goal is to make bookings…
Josh: …of course you won’t make it as vibrant.
Julz: Yeah for sure!
Josh: So number two is colour psychology. That gets really deep it’s interesting to look into if you’re interested in that kind of stuff.
The third principle is scarcity. So this, this works really well in particular when it comes to like advertising campaigns and landing page specific. And what it is, is you want to create this sense of urgency. Like people would rather make quick decisions than risk missing out on, let’s say a discount, or a free thing that comes with it.
Julz: Yeah! It’s playing into, I mean, you’ve got to watch. This is a fine line for a lot of people. We have to watch it, not to manipulate, or play into, or play on people’s fear too much, but it is okay to create that sense of urgency.
Josh: Yeah, absolutely!
Julz: But don’t abuse it.
Josh: Yeah. Well it’s like… it’s like I was just saying before. We have this pottery shop a few, like 15 minutes away from us, and they’ve been having closing down sales for the past five years!
Julz: And I said to Josh I said “Mate I haven’t actually noticed it for the probably the last four years just because it’s forever closing down!” So it does lose its impact.
Josh: Absolutely! And so it’s like you want to be specific and believable. So if you’re selling Archie’s Thongs on your website, which are shoes if you don’t know what thongs are, but like if you’re selling those and there’s only like two left it’s better for you to say “only two left” than “availability limited”. People are more inclined to believe you if you’re specific.
Julz: I did it the other day. I was buying a guitar stand and there was only like exactly that two left and I was like I better jump on that, because everybody else has sold out. And so that got me to convert, so to speak.
Josh: Yeah, and it creates that urgency! Like if people think that they can come back at any time to book, then they probably won’t book.
Josh: So a great example, in the service industry was I running Google ads for a client who put on this campaign that if you booked through this campaign, for a limited time you get a free spikey ball. You know, like the ones that you roll on your back?
Josh: So for that limited time, if you booked during that time you would get a free spiky ball, but it was for a limited amount of people and she clarified that. She said how many were left, and that’s one way of doing it. So you can either be time driven like deadlines, it’s like use this coupon code in the next two days and you’ll get 15% off or it can be quantity driven. So it’s like the availability. We have limited availability left, or it’s like we have three spots left on our webinar.
Julz: Yeah, for sure. We’re about to do this on Em’s courses site actually. So the time driven thing will be good.
Josh: Yeah. Absolutely! And I think it’s very good for service industries as well.
Julz: Yeah, and there’s some pretty smart tools out there now! Like you know, on landing pages you can make it so it’s got a 24-hour countdown and if you try to visit that with that web page after 24 hours you won’t be able to see it. You’ll get redirected somewhere else so…
Josh: Absolutely! And it doesn’t mean after those 24 hours you can’t use it again.
Josh: Maybe just wait another week or a month or so, and then run it again.
Julz: Yeah, or just try from an incognito window!
Josh: Haha! You’ve got the tricks!
Julz: I’ve done it! Little hack there.
Josh: But a great, a great one is like for service industries let’s say you want to do a webinar, like on “How to stretch to help your back”.
Julz: Yeah, sure.
Josh: You put… we’ve got… you need to register by this date to get access to the webinar.
Julz: Yeah. It’s a good one!
Josh: …which also leads to our next principle.
So scarcity was that one, and then the next one is reciprocity. So you want to create this reciprocal response.
Julz: For sure!
Josh: So for example, that physio who’s putting on the webinar, if you go “This is a free webinar and we’re going to help you strengthen your back” or “help your back” and then at the end of that webinar after you’ve given all of this free advice you go “If you’re still experiencing back pain come in and see us”, the customer is more inclined to go with you because you’ve already given them all of this free information.
Josh: It’s like “Oh he gave me some nice gifts. That’s so nice!”
Julz: Yeah, it works time and time again!
Julz: It does create that kind of almost instant tidbit of loyalty in a way.
Julz: You’ve kind of gone out of your way to help me. I feel more obliged to come in and trust you.
Josh: Absolutely! And this is like… this guides how we build a lot of landing pages. It’s like we want you to see, like this this comes down to reviews as well, we want you to see how other people have benefited from this. So, and then it’s like they’re more inclined to reciprocate your good gesture to all of your other clients.
Josh: Or another one is, that I’m starting to use, and I’m seeing some good results is getting clients to record like a… like one was heel pain, and it was like “This is how you can fix heel pain in three steps”.
Josh: And then right underneath, it’s like “If you are still experiencing heel pain, click this button”.
Julz: Yeah, sure.
Josh: Most people don’t want to put in the work themselves, so they’re going to watch the video and go “Oh that’s nice” and then click book anyway!
Julz: Yeah, yeah!
Josh: So it’s about creating this feeling of indebtedness I guess, that you give away small gifts and then they feel indebted to you. And like an approach that I use with Google ads is like you’ve got site link extensions. So you’ve got the main advertising copy and then underneath it you have a few other links to different things. And if you put another link that says “Free blog on how to….”
Julz: Yeah, sure.
Josh: …like let’s say that top one is “Experiencing heel pain”, and then underneath there’s a blog that says “Three tips on how to manage your heel pain”. You go onto that blog, the blog has all of this information, a great call-to-action and then you just watch in analytics as people jump from that blog to the bottom line.
Julz: I love that!! That’s so cool!
Josh: It’s so cool!
So, the other thing when it comes to reciprocity is also that people are less likely to say no twice.
Josh: So for example, you email your clients with a $10 off coupon code, and then like two weeks later it’s like “Hey, we realized that you haven’t taken advantage of this coupon code. Here’s twenty dollars off” or fifteen dollars off, or whatever’s more… like actually like what you can actually handle.
Julz: Yeah, yeah.
Josh: People are less likely to say no twice, than just leaving it.
Julz: Yeah, that’s interesting!
Josh: If that makes sense.
Julz: Yeah, yeah.
Josh: Yeah. So an example of us doing this is actually test, like our main call-to-action.
Julz: Oh yeah. “Test your site”.
Josh: Yeah. So you paired “Test your site” with the question “Is your website working for you or against you?”
Josh: And then you’ve offered this free test your site.
Julz: Yeah, which spits out a free report.
Josh: Absolutely! And we’ve found, especially in the earlier days, the amount of clients who actually converted from that, what percentage was that? It was pretty high right?
Julz: Yeah… now I wouldn’t be able to give you a specific percentage but it was a lot higher from what I was seeing online from other agencies and things like that.
Julz: So I was just playing into that psychology and in fact I’ve used that same method on Clinic Mastery actually.
Josh: Yeah, yeah!
Julz: So if you’re a clinic out there then you might have come through the funnel of psychology that we applied to that, and it was the same thing, same kind of approach. “How does your clinic score?” “Assess your clinic” which is another free test. So essentially the same kind of funnel but the feedback from that was that their campaigns that they ran were the best campaigns that they’ve ever had. The best response to that lead magnet ever! So I thought that was pretty insightful.
Josh: And in those tests it gives away some free tips as well.
Julz: Cracking tips, yeah!!
Josh: Absolutely! So now one it’s like “Oh your SEO is ranking pretty low. Here’s some free tips on how to maybe increase it a little bit”.
Josh: It’s not the full answer.
Julz: And like… it’s…I mean that’s the hook, and it’s sort of the upsell into our services so to speak. But it has been interesting. I found a couple of clients that… well I wouldn’t say clients now, I would say a couple of people that their website broke and it turns out that they got our… they already had a report done and they have tried to apply some of the stuff themselves, but it didn’t quite work out. So…
Josh: Yeah… It’s like giving a tidbit to go “Okay maybe this is something you can implement, but we recognize that there’s a lot more that you can’t implement”
Julz: Yeah. Yeah for sure!
Josh: Then that’s where we come in! So then, that’s about scarcity, I mean reciprocity, and then the next one is cognitive dissonance.
Pretty much what this means is people have an inclination to want their behaviours to be consistent. So we use this a lot when it comes to content marketing. It’s like we want people to stay on the site for as long as possible because if they’ve invested like more time in that website, then there’s more chance of them actually booking.
Julz: Yeah for sure! And you can check out… you can check out how long your visitors are staying on your website in your analytics, if you’ve got that set up.
Josh: Yeah. Absolutely!
Julz: So I know that you use that a bit.
Josh: I use that a lot!!
Julz: Yeah, so does Em.
Josh: And so Em actually wrote a blog, on our blog and one of the things was like “check how long people are spending on certain pages to see what content is actually working for you. If there’s a specific page that people land on and then leave straight away it’s not working for you. You want people to stay on it for as long as possible so that there’s more chance of them actually reciprocating that”.
Julz: Yeah. For sure!
Josh: Because they want, they want to book with you if they’re on your site, and if you keep them long enough, there’s more chance of them going “Oh I’ve already been on here like 10 minutes, I may as well just book”. So you can see how when you combine that with the whole reciprocity of going “Hey here’s some free tips”, people are going to read those free tips, they’re going to spend five minutes reading those tips and then they’re like oh I’ve been on here long enough. I may as well just go ahead with that.
Julz: Yeah, I love it!
Josh: Yeah! And then the next one is a big one, and that’s empathy.
Julz: I love empathy!
Julz: Empathy is…empathy is probably my favourite thing, not even just in websites! Like just even in the way that I deal with clients and people and everybody… empathy. So that’s understanding your visitors. In general, understanding your visitors, understanding your customers, understanding your people, and then in terms of the site and your digital space, what led them to your site? How much knowledge do they have etc? So it’s like walking in their shoes, if you will. Think like they would want to.
Josh: Absolutely! And that will inform your copy as well.
Josh: So we came across this landing page, that the copy we looked at and we’re like “Oh yeah, that’s just not too good”.
Julz: Yeah, yeah.
Josh: And… what was it? What was the landing page?
Julz: The three-line one? The three-point one? I can’t even remember what the exact points were but it was like something… it made no sense to me. It made no sense to me whatsoever! And so… and I was thinking if I were a business approaching or coming to this or landing on this page, I would have absolutely no idea! So they do not know their audience well.
So our approach to that in the context of assess your, I mean, sorry, “Test your site” and “Is your website working for you against you”, that was me going “I’m going to put myself into my visitor’s shoes because I know that their common denominator problem is that they are curious on whether their website is actually working for them or not”. So rather than going “I’m the best agency in town and you should come and work with me because I’m the greatest, and I’ve got the best knowledge on schema, data, and mark up” , I mean you know what you sound like a bit of a douche and you’ve made it all about yourself. So that shows me that you don’t understand your audience. And ultimately it’s really about how is this going to best benefit, because it may come across as manipulative in a way that I would write a line like that to try and hook the person in. But ultimately the heart behind it is that well, I’m passionate about websites, and I want you to know the truth about your website. And if that truth is a little bit painful, then we can help you out to fix that, but I don’t want you to go through your business journey with a website that’s not working for you. So…
Josh: And that’s the whole… that’s the whole driving factor behind all of these things!
Julz: It should be for sure! And so with like… even on a like a lot of our clinics and stuff like that, when we’re in the content phase, we encourage them a lot. Step outside of your headspace, step outside of your university degree knowledge, because for the other 99% of the population, they have absolutely no idea what that terminology is.
Josh: Just assume that people have no idea what you’re talking about.
Julz: Because half the things that come across our desk I couldn’t even pronounce let alone spell a proper spelling in Google so…
Josh: It’s like that landing page you were talking about. If they use like three words, it’s like attract, retain, grow. It’s like attract what? Retain what? Grow what?
Josh: They’re all buzz words! Think about how… like you know the golden rule it’s like treat others how you’d like to be treated!
Julz: Yeah, yeah.
Josh: I’ve heard this, that there’s like this platinum rule that you treat people how they would like to be treated…
Julz: Yeah, I love that!!
Josh: …not just you, because it’s like you already know everything. Your clients have no idea what you’re talking about!
Julz: Yeah, yeah!
Josh: So put yourself in their shoes.
Julz: Yeah! So on a… on a technical front I mean you can dig in a little bit deeper. Yeah, I know that you jump into like demographics and even like user journeys??
Josh: Yeah. Yeah, absolutely! And that’s what we’re actually going to be talking about on our next episode!
Josh: So, you can look into your analytics, see how your users are using and navigating your site. Learn more about your users. Look at your… even just look at your books and assess like who’s my main target market? You will find that there is a majority of people, and then so it’s like if your majority, if your target market, like the example you used before, is men then maybe go “How do I create my site around that?” And it’s not about manipulation. All of these psychological principles is going “I believe that I can help these people”.
Josh: And I’m just going to use all that I can to try and help people get on the journey, so that I can help them, because I believe that if they use my service, if they buy my product, their life will be better.
Josh: And so those principles that guide page design is clarity and simplicity of design, colour psychology, scarcity, reciprocity, cognitive dissonance and empathy.
Julz: Huge, huge words Josh!
Josh: Huge! And a lot of people may not understand it all but it’s massive, and it goes… and it informs a lot of how we design pages.
Josh: So, thank you Julz!
Julz: No worries!
Josh: Thank you to everyone who’s listening.
Next episode, we’re talking about analytics and we’re getting back to basics. This one, this episode was very intense. Next episode is going back to basics. What actually matters in your analytics? How can you leverage those analytics and why you need analytics.
See you next time!